Supplies referred to as metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have a inflexible, cage-like construction that lends itself to quite a lot of purposes, from fuel storage to drug supply. By altering the constructing blocks that go into the supplies, or the best way they’re organized, researchers can design MOFs suited to completely different makes use of.
Nonetheless, not all potential MOF buildings are steady sufficient to be deployed for purposes equivalent to catalyzing reactions or storing gases. To assist researchers work out which MOF buildings would possibly work greatest for a given software, MIT researchers have developed a computational strategy that enables them to foretell which buildings would be the most steady.
Utilizing their computational mannequin, the researchers have recognized about 10,000 potential MOF buildings that they classify as “ultrastable,” making them good candidates for purposes equivalent to changing methane fuel to methanol.
“When folks provide you with hypothetical MOF supplies, they don’t essentially know beforehand how steady that materials is,” says Heather Kulik, an MIT affiliate professor of chemistry and chemical engineering, and the senior creator of the research. “We used knowledge and our machine-learning fashions to provide you with constructing blocks that had been anticipated to have excessive stability, and after we recombined these in ways in which had been significantly extra various, our dataset was enriched with supplies with larger stability than any earlier set of hypothetical supplies folks had provide you with.”
MIT graduate scholar Aditya Nandy is the lead creator of the paper, which seems at this time within the journal Matter. Different authors are MIT postdoc Shuwen Yue, graduate college students Changhwan Oh and Gianmarco Terrones, Chenru Duan PhD ’22, and Yongchul G. Chung, an affiliate professor of chemical and biomolecular engineering at Pusan Nationwide College.
Scientists are thinking about MOFs as a result of they’ve a porous construction that makes them well-suited to purposes involving gases, equivalent to fuel storage, separating comparable gases from one another, or changing one fuel to a different. Not too long ago, scientists have additionally begun to discover utilizing them to ship medicine or imaging brokers inside the physique.
The 2 major parts of MOFs are secondary constructing models — natural molecules that incorporate metallic atoms equivalent to zinc or copper — and natural molecules known as linkers, which join the secondary constructing models. These components could be mixed collectively in many alternative methods, similar to LEGO constructing blocks, Kulik says.
“As a result of there are such a lot of various kinds of LEGO blocks and methods you possibly can assemble them, it offers rise to a combinatorial explosion of various potential metallic natural framework supplies,” she says. “You possibly can actually management the general construction of the metallic natural framework by selecting and selecting the way you assemble completely different parts.”
Presently, the most typical method to design MOFs is thru trial-and-error. Extra just lately, researchers have begun to attempt computational approaches to designing these supplies. Most such research have been primarily based on predictions of how nicely the fabric will work for a selected software, however they don’t all the time bear in mind the soundness of the ensuing materials.
“A extremely good MOF materials for catalysis or for fuel storage would have a really open construction, however after you have this open construction, it could be actually exhausting to be sure that that materials can be steady underneath long-term use,” Kulik says.
In a 2021 research, Kulik reported a new model that she created by mining just a few thousand papers on MOFs to search out knowledge on the temperature at which a given MOF would break down and whether or not specific MOFs can stand up to the circumstances wanted to take away solvents used to synthesize them. She skilled the pc mannequin to foretell these two options — referred to as thermal stability and activation stability — primarily based on the molecules’ construction.
Within the new research, Kulik and her college students used that mannequin to establish about 500 MOFs with very excessive stability. Then, they broke these MOFs down into their commonest constructing blocks — 120 secondary constructing models and 16 linkers.
By recombining these constructing blocks utilizing about 750 various kinds of architectures, together with many that aren’t often included in such fashions, the researchers generated about 50,000 new MOF buildings.
“One of many issues that was distinctive about our set was that we checked out much more various crystal symmetries than had ever been checked out earlier than, however [we did so] utilizing these constructing blocks that had solely come from experimentally synthesized extremely steady MOFs,” Kulik says.
The researchers then used their computational fashions to foretell how steady every of those 50,000 buildings can be, and recognized about 10,000 that they deemed ultrastable, each for thermal stability and activation stability.
Additionally they screened the buildings for his or her “deliverable capability” — a measure of a cloth’s capacity to retailer and launch gases. For this evaluation, the researchers used methane fuel, as a result of capturing methane may very well be helpful for eradicating it from the environment or changing it to methanol. They discovered that the ten,000 ultrastable supplies they recognized had good deliverable capacities for methane they usually had been additionally mechanically steady, as measured by their predicted elastic modulus.
“Designing a MOF requires consideration of many sorts of stability, however our fashions allow a near-zero-cost prediction of thermal and activation stability,” Nandy says. “By additionally understanding the mechanical stability of those supplies, we offer a brand new method to establish promising supplies.”
The researchers additionally recognized sure constructing blocks that have a tendency to supply extra steady supplies. One of many secondary constructing models with one of the best stability was a molecule that accommodates gadolinium, a rare-earth metallic. One other was a cobalt-containing porphyrin — a big natural molecule made of 4 interconnected rings.
College students in Kulik’s lab are actually engaged on synthesizing a few of these MOF buildings and testing them within the lab for his or her stability and potential catalytic capacity and fuel separation capacity. The researchers have additionally made their database of ultrastable supplies obtainable for researchers thinking about testing them for their very own scientific purposes.
The analysis was funded by the U.S. Protection Superior Analysis Tasks Company, a Nationwide Science Basis Graduate Analysis Fellowship, the Workplace of Naval Analysis, the Division of Vitality, an MIT Portugal Seed Fund, and the Nationwide Analysis Basis of Korea.